NCKU Measures for Preventing and Managing Ergonomic hazards


Approved through the fourth meeting of the Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Protection Committee on December 30, 2015


I.      These Measures are prepared in order to fulfill the requirements in Article 6 Paragraph 2 Sub-paragraph 1 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act and in Point 16 Paragraph 1 Sub-paragraph 1 of the University’s Directions for Managing Occupational Safety and Health and to prevent work-related musculoskeletal damage and ergonomic hazardous disorders for the University’s staff due to repeated operations and improper hardware design of the workplace, undesirable working postures, or extended working hours. If there are special requirements in other laws or other regulations or management procedures of the University, such requirements shall be followed.


II.    Terms herein are defined as follows:

(一) 人因工程:依據1987年Sanders與McComick文獻,人因工程在於發現人類的行為、能力、限制和其他的特性等知    識,而應用於工具、機器、系統、任務、工作和環境等的設計,使人類對於它們的使用能更具生產力、有效果、舒適與安全。

(I)    Ergonomics: According to the publications of Sanders and McComick in 1987, the ergonomics aims to learn more about human behavior, capabilities, restrictions, and other properties, and is applied in the design of tools, machines, systems, missions, tasks, and the environment so that humans can use them more productively, effectively, comfortably, and safely.

(二) 工作相關肌肉骨骼傷害:由於工作中的危險因子,如持續或重複施力、不當姿勢,導致或加重軟組織傷病。

(II)   Work-related musculoskeletal damage: Soft tissue disorders caused by or exacerbated by risk factors at work, such as continuous or repetitive applications of force and improper postures.


III.   Scope of Application


(I)   University personnel that are likely to be exposed are as follows:

1.辦公室行政工作人員 (電腦處理作業、書寫作業…等)。

Office administrators (computer processing and composing, etc.).

2.技工、工友或司機 (如清潔、搬運、開車…等)。

Technicians, janitors, or drivers (housekeeping, transport, or driving a car, for example).

3.實驗研究人員 (如重複性取樣作業)。

Lab researchers (repeated sampling, for example).


Other staff engaged in repeated tasks over an extended period of time.


(II)  Except for lab researchers that need to follow the ES-00-P-02 Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment and Management Procedure as part of the NCKU Occupational Safety and Health Management Plan, these Measures shall apply to all the other people mentioned above.


IV.   Responsibilities at all levels of the University are as follows:

(一) 雇主:重複性作業等促發肌肉骨骼疾病之預防。

(I)  Employer: To prevent musculoskeletal disorders triggered by repeated operations.

(二) 秘書室:

(II)Secretariat Office:


The Secretariat Office will supervise completion of improvements at units that are notified to seek improvements by the Center for Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Protection due to failure to follow these Measures.

2.各單位間執行本措施有權限爭議時,經環境保護暨安全衛生中心通知後,由秘書室召集相關單位協調定之。個案如涉跨單位爭議,依前揭 程序,送秘書室審議。

The Secretariat Office is to gather the related units for the coordination in case of any dispute over authority in the implementation of these Measures at the respective units upon notification from the Center for Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Protection. If a dispute involves multiple units, it will be sent to the Secretariat Office for review in accordance with the foregoing procedure.

(三) 工作場所負責人:負責指揮、監督所屬執行本措施規定之相關事項並協調及指導有關人員實施,亦得指派承辦人員處理本措施規定之相關業務。

(III) The person in charge of the workplace is responsible for giving direction and supervising implementation of related matters specified herein and coordinating and providing guidance to related staff over the implementation and may also assign someone to perform the related tasks specified herein.

(四) 臨廠健康服務之醫師及護理人員:負責協助有不適症狀之本校工作者其職業健康之諮詢與職業災害之判定。

(IV) Physicians and nurses providing health services in factories are responsible for helping with occupational health consultation and determining occupational hazards for staff of the University with symptoms of discomfort.


V.    Ergonomic hazards shall be prevented in compliance with the following procedures, and Exhibit 1 is to be completed.


(I)Operational analysis:


Each unit will analyze the process flow, contents, and actions involved in the related operations and precisely list them.

2. 舉例如下:

Examples include:


Office administration: Using the keyboard and mouse to control and enter information to facilitate computer processing, composing, and communication over the phone.


Cleaning: Sweeping and transports that are repeated over an extended period of time.


Drivers: Repeatedly driving over an extended period of time.


(II)Identification of hazards: Verification of ergonomic hazardous factors, including:

1.  可能發生之原因,舉例如下:

Examples of possible causes are provided below:


Incorrect keyboard and mouse operating postures.


Repeated typing and use of the mouse.


Local stress felt by physical tissues due to suppression over an extended period of time.


Excessive use of the eyes.


Working in a sitting position or with your back in a fixed posture over an extended period of time.


Incorrect sitting position.


Confined space over an extended period of time.


Incorrect standing position.


Incorrect transport position.


Teaching or giving lectures in a standing position over an extended period of time.


History of upper back pain or lower back pain.


Prior fracture.


Prior major trauma.

2.  後果的影響,舉例如下:

Examples of consequences are provided below:


Operation-related back soreness: such as upper back pain, lower back pain.


Operation-related soreness of the upper limbs: such as wrist pain and arm pain.


Operation-related soreness of the neck.


Operation-related soreness of the waist.


Operation-related soreness of the lower limbs: such as the calf or foot.

(三) 選定改善方法及執行:(建議方式舉例如下)

(III) Selection of corrective action and implementation: (Examples of recommended approaches are provided below.)

1. 工程控制:

Engineering control: 


In cases of ergonomic hazards for staff due to extended working hours caused by undesirable machinery, equipment, or tools used, related equipment shall be improved or replaced in order to avoid increased harm done to the muscles and bones, or worsened musculoskeletal conditions.


If the staff uses computers in offices over an extended period of time, considerations shall be given to providing computer desks that are suitable for the physical sizes of our nationals in order to help computer users prevent related musculoskeletal soreness or disorders.


Regarding how to define the working posture at computer stations, however, it is widely debated and there is no single perfect sitting position available (by lowering the height of the seat, it helps the lower limbs take a rest but it also increases the burden felt by the upper body at the same time, for example). Meanwhile, any static posture without change over an extended period of time gives rise to fatigue. Therefore, at work, adequately changing the posture is the only good way to reduce fatigue.


As far as the posture is concerned, generally speaking, the top of the display shall be below the eye level so that the person faces forward and slightly down in order to reduce the burden felt by the neck keeping the head raised. During operation, efforts shall be made to keep the eyes forward and slightly down in order to reduce the fatigue felt by the eyes.


The keyboard needs to be right in the front and the optimal height is when the hands are on the keyboard, the arms can lie with comfort on both sides of the body and the elbow forms an angle around 90°.


The mouse should not be placed too high; one can consider placing it as close to the centerline of the body as possible.


Administration and management:


During operation, one shall avoid repeatedly using a certain body part over an extended period of time (such as the wrist and the fingers).


During operation, one shall avoid improper exertion of force or excessive use of injured body parts or an extended duration.

(3)工作者自覺疼痛症狀消失後,可配合正確的伸展運動和肌力訓練 (可參考本校學務處衛生保健組提供之相關衛教資訊) 。

Once it is felt that symptoms of pain have disappeared, one can begin correct stretching exercises and muscle strength training (refer to the related health information provided by the Health Center of the University's Student Affairs Office).


Consider adjustment of the nature of work for the staff, such as reducing the nature of work that involves repetitions or increasing operations involving different working patterns.


One can spontaneously adjust the working posture and avoid any abnormal burden felt by the spinal cord due to a sitting position over an extended period of time. Computer equipment that is operated in a standing position may be adequately used to reduce local physical fatigue.

3.  健康管理:

Health management:


Spontaneous checks: In case of physical discomfort, such as soreness in the eyes, wrist, first Dorsal Interosseous, thumb, and lower back muscle pain due to repetitions over an extended period of time, one shall check and adjust the posture and work correctly. Seek medical attention as soon as possible in case of difficulty correcting persistent symptoms of discomfort and exacerbation.


Health examination: Examination findings are analyzed combining ergonomic hazardous factors and one shall adjust the nature of work according to hazardous factors.


There are occupational medicine consultation clinics available at the University. The staff, faculty, and students can all make an appointment free of charge and consult about occupational health and how occupational hazards are determined. Those with needs may make an appointment with nurses providing health services at the Center for Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Protection of the University.

4.  教育訓練:

Education and training:


Staff is educated to effectively utilize reasonable breaks while at work and the time involved.


Awareness about musculoskeletal harm and risks and correct operational methods are communicated.


Educational training is provided covering awareness of and education on hazards and fitness training for the staff to reinforce the knowledge that staff has about musculoskeletal harm. 


Suitable physical training courses are arranged to maintain the required muscle strength, muscle endurance, extensiveness, dexterity, and physical performance required for operators, to effectively prevent deteriorating capabilities of the operators, and to prevent musculoskeletal harm and lower back pain.


VI.  Implementation Efficacy Assessment and Improvement


Once the improvement plan is enforced, it is required to perform an efficacy assessment each year in order to understand if the improvements are effective. If not, a re-assessment is required and then suitable improvement proposals are selected according to the assessment findings.


VII.   Situations where a re-assessment is required for the prevention ergonomic hazards are described as follows:


(I)   When work is changed for the staff: such as changes of the operating procedure, the operational method, and the tools used.


(II)  When it is determined by an occupational medicine specialist that the occupational hazards occur because of the workplace


(III)When related laws and regulations are changed


VIII.   Implementation records or documentation of these Measures shall be archived for at least three years. These Measures are part of preventive management. In case of any physical symptom of discomfort, please seek medical attention as soon as possible.


IX.   These Measures are to be announced and implemented after they are approved by the President of the University and the same shall apply to their revisions.



These regulations were translated from the original Chinese. In the event of any discrepancies between the two versions, the Chinese always takes precedence.