法規內容

下載法規原始檔

 

國立成功大學人因性危害預防管理措施
NCKU Measures for Preventing and Managing Ergonomic hazards

104年12月30日第104-4次環境保護暨安全衛生委員會會議通過

Approved through the fourth meeting of the Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Protection Committee on December 30, 2015

一、為符合職業安全衛生法第6條第2項第1款與學校職業安全衛生管理要點第16點第1項第1款規定,並預防本校工作者因進行重複性作業加上工作環境的硬體設計不妥適、不良的作業姿勢或者工作時間過長,而引起工作相關肌肉骨骼傷害以及人因性危害的疾病發生,特訂定本措施;其他法律有特別規定者、本校其他辦法或管理程序有特別規定者,從其規定。

I.      These Measures are prepared in order to fulfill the requirements in Article 6 Paragraph 2 Sub-paragraph 1 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act and in Point 16 Paragraph 1 Sub-paragraph 1 of the University’s Directions for Managing Occupational Safety and Health and to prevent work-related musculoskeletal damage and ergonomic hazardous disorders for the University’s staff due to repeated operations and improper hardware design of the workplace, undesirable working postures, or extended working hours. If there are special requirements in other laws or other regulations or management procedures of the University, such requirements shall be followed.

二、本措施用詞,定義如下:

II.    Terms herein are defined as follows:

(一) 人因工程:依據1987年Sanders與McComick文獻,人因工程在於發現人類的行為、能力、限制和其他的特性等知    識,而應用於工具、機器、系統、任務、工作和環境等的設計,使人類對於它們的使用能更具生產力、有效果、舒適與安全。

(I)    Ergonomics: According to the publications of Sanders and McComick in 1987, the ergonomics aims to learn more about human behavior, capabilities, restrictions, and other properties, and is applied in the design of tools, machines, systems, missions, tasks, and the environment so that humans can use them more productively, effectively, comfortably, and safely.

(二) 工作相關肌肉骨骼傷害:由於工作中的危險因子,如持續或重複施力、不當姿勢,導致或加重軟組織傷病。

(II)   Work-related musculoskeletal damage: Soft tissue disorders caused by or exacerbated by risk factors at work, such as continuous or repetitive applications of force and improper postures.

三、本措施適用範圍

III.   Scope of Application

(一)本校可能之暴露族群為下列工作者

(I)   University personnel that are likely to be exposed are as follows:

1.辦公室行政工作人員 (電腦處理作業、書寫作業…等)。

Office administrators (computer processing and composing, etc.).

2.技工、工友或司機 (如清潔、搬運、開車…等)。

Technicians, janitors, or drivers (housekeeping, transport, or driving a car, for example).

3.實驗研究人員 (如重複性取樣作業)。

Lab researchers (repeated sampling, for example).

4.其他長時間重複作業之工作者。

Other staff engaged in repeated tasks over an extended period of time.

(二)除實驗室研究人員需依本校職業安全衛生管理計畫擬定之ES-00-P-02危害鑑別風險評估管理程序執行之外,其餘上述工作者皆適用本辦法。

(II)  Except for lab researchers that need to follow the ES-00-P-02 Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment and Management Procedure as part of the NCKU Occupational Safety and Health Management Plan, these Measures shall apply to all the other people mentioned above.

四、本校各級之權責如下:

IV.   Responsibilities at all levels of the University are as follows:

(一) 雇主:重複性作業等促發肌肉骨骼疾病之預防。

(I)  Employer: To prevent musculoskeletal disorders triggered by repeated operations.

(二) 秘書室:

(II)Secretariat Office:

1.各單位未依本措施執行,經環境保護暨安全衛生中心通知改善後,仍未完全改善之單位,由秘書室督導執行。

The Secretariat Office will supervise completion of improvements at units that are notified to seek improvements by the Center for Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Protection due to failure to follow these Measures.

2.各單位間執行本措施有權限爭議時,經環境保護暨安全衛生中心通知後,由秘書室召集相關單位協調定之。個案如涉跨單位爭議,依前揭 程序,送秘書室審議。

The Secretariat Office is to gather the related units for the coordination in case of any dispute over authority in the implementation of these Measures at the respective units upon notification from the Center for Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Protection. If a dispute involves multiple units, it will be sent to the Secretariat Office for review in accordance with the foregoing procedure.

(三) 工作場所負責人:負責指揮、監督所屬執行本措施規定之相關事項並協調及指導有關人員實施,亦得指派承辦人員處理本措施規定之相關業務。

(III) The person in charge of the workplace is responsible for giving direction and supervising implementation of related matters specified herein and coordinating and providing guidance to related staff over the implementation and may also assign someone to perform the related tasks specified herein.

(四) 臨廠健康服務之醫師及護理人員:負責協助有不適症狀之本校工作者其職業健康之諮詢與職業災害之判定。

(IV) Physicians and nurses providing health services in factories are responsible for helping with occupational health consultation and determining occupational hazards for staff of the University with symptoms of discomfort.

五、人因性危害預防應依下列程序執行並填報附表一。

V.    Ergonomic hazards shall be prevented in compliance with the following procedures, and Exhibit 1 is to be completed.

(一)進行作業分析:

(I)Operational analysis:

1.由各單位自行分析相關作業之流程、內容及動作,並確實寫出。

Each unit will analyze the process flow, contents, and actions involved in the related operations and precisely list them.

2. 舉例如下:

Examples include:

(1)辦公室行政工作:利用鍵盤和滑鼠控制及輸入以進行電腦處理作業、書寫作業、電話溝通作業。

Office administration: Using the keyboard and mouse to control and enter information to facilitate computer processing, composing, and communication over the phone.

(2)清潔工作:長時間重複性進行掃地作業或搬運作業。

Cleaning: Sweeping and transports that are repeated over an extended period of time.

(3)司機人員:長時間重複性進行開車作業。

Drivers: Repeatedly driving over an extended period of time.

(二)危害辨識:即確認人因性危害因子,其包含如下:

(II)Identification of hazards: Verification of ergonomic hazardous factors, including:

1.  可能發生之原因,舉例如下:

Examples of possible causes are provided below:

(1)鍵盤及滑鼠操作姿勢不正確。

Incorrect keyboard and mouse operating postures.

(2)打字、使用滑鼠的重複性動作。

Repeated typing and use of the mouse.

(3)長時間壓迫造成身體組織局部壓力。

Local stress felt by physical tissues due to suppression over an extended period of time.

(4)視覺的過度使用。

Excessive use of the eyes.

(5)長時間以坐姿進行工作或讓背部處於固定姿勢。

Working in a sitting position or with your back in a fixed posture over an extended period of time.

(6)不正確的坐姿。

Incorrect sitting position.

(7)長時間處於局限空間內。

Confined space over an extended period of time.

(8)不正確的站姿。

Incorrect standing position.

(9)不正確的搬運姿勢。

Incorrect transport position.

(10)時間站立教學或講課。

Teaching or giving lectures in a standing position over an extended period of time.

(11)過去上背痛或下背痛之病史。

History of upper back pain or lower back pain.

(12)曾經有骨折。

Prior fracture.

(13)曾經有重大外傷者。

Prior major trauma.

2.  後果的影響,舉例如下:

Examples of consequences are provided below:

(1)作業相關背部痠痛:例如上背痛、下背痛。

Operation-related back soreness: such as upper back pain, lower back pain.

(2)作業相關上肢痠痛:例如手腕痛、手臂痛。

Operation-related soreness of the upper limbs: such as wrist pain and arm pain.

(3)作業相關頸部痠痛。

Operation-related soreness of the neck.

(4)作業相關腰部痠痛。

Operation-related soreness of the waist.

(5)作業相關下肢痠痛:如小腿或足部。

Operation-related soreness of the lower limbs: such as the calf or foot.

(三) 選定改善方法及執行:(建議方式舉例如下)

(III) Selection of corrective action and implementation: (Examples of recommended approaches are provided below.)

1. 工程控制:

Engineering control: 

(1)針對機械、設備、使用工具之配置不良,產生工作者長時間工作造成人因性危害時,應改善或更換相關設備避免增加肌肉骨骼之傷害發生或惡化。

In cases of ergonomic hazards for staff due to extended working hours caused by undesirable machinery, equipment, or tools used, related equipment shall be improved or replaced in order to avoid increased harm done to the muscles and bones, or worsened musculoskeletal conditions.

(2)因工作者長時間處於辦公室使用電腦,故請考量提供適合國人體型之電腦工作桌椅尺寸,以協助電腦使用者預防相關骨骼肌肉痠痛或疾病。

If the staff uses computers in offices over an extended period of time, considerations shall be given to providing computer desks that are suitable for the physical sizes of our nationals in order to help computer users prevent related musculoskeletal soreness or disorders.

(3)然而關於電腦工作站的工作姿勢設定有許多不同的見解,也沒有一種完美的坐姿工作姿勢存在(例如,降低座椅高度可以使下肢得到休息,但同時也將增加上半身之負荷),同時任何一種靜態的姿勢維持一段時間之後將會引起疲勞。因此,工作中,適時改變姿勢才是減少疲勞的好方法。

Regarding how to define the working posture at computer stations, however, it is widely debated and there is no single perfect sitting position available (by lowering the height of the seat, it helps the lower limbs take a rest but it also increases the burden felt by the upper body at the same time, for example). Meanwhile, any static posture without change over an extended period of time gives rise to fatigue. Therefore, at work, adequately changing the posture is the only good way to reduce fatigue.

(4)就姿勢而言,一般顯示器的畫面上端應低於眼高,使臉正面朝向前方並稍稍往下,以減少因抬頭造成頸部負荷。作業時,應儘量使眼睛朝正面往下,以減少眼睛疲勞。

As far as the posture is concerned, generally speaking, the top of the display shall be below the eye level so that the person faces forward and slightly down in order to reduce the burden felt by the neck keeping the head raised. During operation, efforts shall be made to keep the eyes forward and slightly down in order to reduce the fatigue felt by the eyes.

(5)鍵盤的位置要在正前方,最佳的高度是當手至於鍵盤上時,手臂能輕鬆下垂,靠近身體兩側,手肘約成90°。

The keyboard needs to be right in the front and the optimal height is when the hands are on the keyboard, the arms can lie with comfort on both sides of the body and the elbow forms an angle around 90°.

(6)滑鼠放置高度不宜太高,可以考慮盡量靠近身體中線的位置。

The mouse should not be placed too high; one can consider placing it as close to the centerline of the body as possible.

2.行政管理:

Administration and management:

(1)工作者作業時,應避免長時間重覆使用身體某一部位(如手腕、手指等)。

During operation, one shall avoid repeatedly using a certain body part over an extended period of time (such as the wrist and the fingers).

(2)工作者作業時,應避免施力方式不當、過度使用已受傷之部位,或是持續太久。

During operation, one shall avoid improper exertion of force or excessive use of injured body parts or an extended duration.

(3)工作者自覺疼痛症狀消失後,可配合正確的伸展運動和肌力訓練 (可參考本校學務處衛生保健組提供之相關衛教資訊) 。

Once it is felt that symptoms of pain have disappeared, one can begin correct stretching exercises and muscle strength training (refer to the related health information provided by the Health Center of the University's Student Affairs Office).

(4)考量調整工作者工作內容,如減少重複動作之作業內容,或增加不同之工作型態作業。

Consider adjustment of the nature of work for the staff, such as reducing the nature of work that involves repetitions or increasing operations involving different working patterns.

(5)工作者可主動調整工作作業姿勢,避免長期坐姿造成脊椎異常負荷,可適時使用站立之電腦設備,減少身體局部疲勞。

One can spontaneously adjust the working posture and avoid any abnormal burden felt by the spinal cord due to a sitting position over an extended period of time. Computer equipment that is operated in a standing position may be adequately used to reduce local physical fatigue.

3.  健康管理:

Health management:

(1)自我檢查:工作者因長期性、重複性動作有造成身體不適情形時,如眼睛、手腕、手指弧口、大拇指痠痛及下背肌肉痠痛等,應進行檢查並調整正確作業方式。若不適症狀持續無法改善且有加劇之情況,請儘速就醫。

Spontaneous checks: In case of physical discomfort, such as soreness in the eyes, wrist, first Dorsal Interosseous, thumb, and lower back muscle pain due to repetitions over an extended period of time, one shall check and adjust the posture and work correctly. Seek medical attention as soon as possible in case of difficulty correcting persistent symptoms of discomfort and exacerbation.

(2)健康檢查:將工作者檢查結果結合工作人因性危害因子進行分析,針對其危害因子進行工作調整。

Health examination: Examination findings are analyzed combining ergonomic hazardous factors and one shall adjust the nature of work according to hazardous factors.

(3)本校已開設職業醫學諮詢門診,凡本校教、職、員、工、生皆可免費預約並進行職業健康諮詢與職業災害判定,有需要之工作者可向本校環境安全衛生中心之工作者健康服務之護理人員預約。

There are occupational medicine consultation clinics available at the University. The staff, faculty, and students can all make an appointment free of charge and consult about occupational health and how occupational hazards are determined. Those with needs may make an appointment with nurses providing health services at the Center for Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Protection of the University.

4.  教育訓練:

Education and training:

(1)宣導工作者有效利用合理之工作間休息次數與時間。

Staff is educated to effectively utilize reasonable breaks while at work and the time involved.

(2)傳遞肌肉骨骼傷害風險意識與正確作業方式。

Awareness about musculoskeletal harm and risks and correct operational methods are communicated.

(3)藉由危害認知與宣導及工作者體適能訓練兩方面從事教育訓練,一方面加強工作者對肌肉骨骼傷害之了解。

Educational training is provided covering awareness of and education on hazards and fitness training for the staff to reinforce the knowledge that staff has about musculoskeletal harm. 

(4)安排適當的體能訓練課程,維持人員操作所需之肌力、肌耐力、四肢延展與靈活度及體力體能,以有效避免人員之操作能力衰退,並預防肌肉骨骼傷害與下背痛。

Suitable physical training courses are arranged to maintain the required muscle strength, muscle endurance, extensiveness, dexterity, and physical performance required for operators, to effectively prevent deteriorating capabilities of the operators, and to prevent musculoskeletal harm and lower back pain.

六、執行成效之評估及改善

VI.  Implementation Efficacy Assessment and Improvement

實施改善計畫後,每年需進行成效性評估,以了解改善是否有其成效,若無成效則需重新評估,再依評估結果選擇適當之改善方案。

Once the improvement plan is enforced, it is required to perform an efficacy assessment each year in order to understand if the improvements are effective. If not, a re-assessment is required and then suitable improvement proposals are selected according to the assessment findings.

七、人因性危害預防需重新評估之狀況如下說明:

VII.   Situations where a re-assessment is required for the prevention ergonomic hazards are described as follows:

(一)工作者工作變更時:如作業流程、作業方式、使用工具等改變時。

(I)   When work is changed for the staff: such as changes of the operating procedure, the operational method, and the tools used.

(二)經職業醫學科專科醫師判定為該作業場所所產生之職業災害時。

(II)  When it is determined by an occupational medicine specialist that the occupational hazards occur because of the workplace

(三)相關法令變更時。

(III)When related laws and regulations are changed

八、本措施執行紀錄或文件等應歸檔留存三年以上,本措施為預防性之管理,若身體已有不適症狀請儘速就醫。

VIII.   Implementation records or documentation of these Measures shall be archived for at least three years. These Measures are part of preventive management. In case of any physical symptom of discomfort, please seek medical attention as soon as possible.

九、本措施經校長核定後公告實施;修正時亦同。

IX.   These Measures are to be announced and implemented after they are approved by the President of the University and the same shall apply to their revisions.

 

 

These regulations were translated from the original Chinese. In the event of any discrepancies between the two versions, the Chinese always takes precedence.